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Virusul Schmallenberg. Ciudat cum apar tot felul de virusi in ultimii ani, virusi care nu au mai aparut pana acum deloc pe la noi


Nelinişte în Germania, Belgia, Franţa, Olanda, Belgia, Regatul Unit. Virusul Schmallenberg, necunoscut până acum, circulă şi infectează bovinele, ovinele şi caprinele. Într-un comunicat al ANSES din 24 ianuarie şi al Ministerului Agriculturii  din Franţa, din 27 ianuarie, reiese că virusul a fost detectat la miei din 13 ferme din 6 departamente din nordul Franţei. Potrivit Ministerului francez al Agriculturii, acest virus nu s-ar transmite de la un animal la altul”. Între august şi octombrie, cazuri de infecţie acută cu virusul  Schmallenberg au fost depistate la bovine din Germania, Olanda şi Belgia, indică ANSES (Agenţia naţională franceză pentru securitate sanitară alimentară, a mediului şi muncii). Din luna decembrie 2012, au fost raportate cazuri de malformaţii legate de acest virus la ovine şi caprine în Germania, Belgia şi Olanda. Virusul Schmallenberg face parte din familia orthobunyavirusuri. Cu informaţiile actuale, explice ANSES, se ştie că virusul ar afecta în principal rumegătoarele. La bovinele adulte, infecţia acută se manifestă prin creşterea temperaturii şi scăderea poftei de mâncare. La acestea se adaugă, în cazul vacilor care dau lapte, o scădere a producţiei, diaree şi avort. Infecţia în cazul femelelor poate profoca naşterea de animale cu malformaţii. În prezent nu se cunoaşte cu precizie care este vectorul acestui virus, ci doar se bănuie că ar fi ţânţarul sau căpuşa. (sursa: Jurnalul National)

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Veterinary & Science Policy Advice
International Disease Monitoring
Reference: VITT/1200 Schmallenberg virus in North Europe
Date: 20th December 2011

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Schmallenberg Virus in Northern Europe: a new orthobunyavirus in cattle
Situation Assessment
Note: Defra’s International Disease Monitoring (IDM) team monitors outbreaks of high
impact diseases around the world. The emergence of new vector borne diseases of cattle is
monitored and reported when necessary.
1 Disease Report
Since the summer months of 2011, both the Netherlands and Germany have
reported outbreaks of a disease in cattle, with clinical signs such as fever, reduced
milk yield (up to 50%), inappetence, loss of condition and in some cases, diarrhoea.
The clinical signs disappeared after a few days and frequency of reports ceased in
the forthcoming months. In Germany, these reports were restricted to North Rhein
Westphalia (European Commission, 2011). In Netherlands, there were more than 80
affected farms over the whole region. However, although the cattle recovered, there
have now been reports of deformities in early stage calves and also in sheep in the
Netherlands although there were no reports of similar clinical signs in sheep
(Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, 2011).
More than 100 samples from affected cattle on 14 farms in Germany were sent to
the Friedrich Loeffler Institute, and initially were tested for Bluetongue, Epizootic

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Haemorrhagic disease, Pestiviruses, Rift Valley Fever and others. All were ruled out.
Further investigations could not isolate virus, but using novel techniques such as
next generation sequencing and metagenomic analysis (Friedrich Loeffler Institute,
2011) of PCR products nine samples (9%) gave positive results for viral sequences.
Of the samples from Netherlands, 18 out of 50 were positive (36%). Analysis
revealed these viral sequences had strong similarity to the orthobunyaviruses. This
group of viruses includes a subgroup of agents such as Akabane, Aino and
Shamonda viruses. The subgroup (the Simu-serogroup) contains 25 different
viruses, mainly affecting animals, causing mild clinical disease and transmitted by
insect vectors. However infections of early stage foetuses can cause abortion or
congenital disorders (European Commission, 2011). The new virus has been named
Schmallenberg virus, for the town where initial reports of disease were made.
2 Situation Assessment
There are still uncertainties around this new virus, such as the vector responsible for
transmission, the geographic distribution, transmissibility of infected animals and the
origin. The virus has not been isolated, and as there is no serology test available at
present, serological surveillance is not possible.
Since the UK was made aware of the situation we have been carrying out scanning
surveillance in cattle. No similar reports of clinical signs in the UK have been made.
The more recent reports of the abortions and congenital deformities are of concern
and heightened awareness in animal keepers is recommended over the coming
months. This is because there is a low risk that inapparently infected cattle and
sheep may have been imported during 2011 from the affected area. Such animals
may have been exposed during early pregnancy with an increased risk of
developmental abnormality. Typical deformities in lambs have included crooked
necks, hydrocephalus and stiff joints. Most were born dead while infected live lambs
did not survive. It may be too early to see the extent of problems in cattle and even in
sheep, case rates are not known. Therefore animal keepers would need to be aware
of lambs or calves born between now and Summer 2012 and report any abortions
and deformities, which may be submitted for testing, particularly if from imported
cattle or sheep. As infection may have occurred some time ago, it would be difficult
to take disease control measures.
This is not a notifiable disease, and as such there are no trade restrictions in place or
any current control measures. It is not possible to consider appropriate control
measures until more is known about the route of infection and spread. According to
the initial risk assessment carried out by the Netherlands RIVM, the risk to human
health is considered very low (Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, 2011).
According to TRACES, the EU trade notification system, there have been 185
consignments of cattle from Netherlands, totalling nearly 3,000 animals and 51 from

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Germany, of nearly 1,500 animals. Many of these animals will be in-calf heifers. For
sheep trade, there have been 5 consignments of 38 sheep from Germany and 4 from
Netherlands of 63 animals. Approximately half were females.
3 Conclusions
We consider there would be a negligible risk of introduction via infected vectors at
this time of year. It is difficult to quantify the risk of introduction of disease into the UK
through imports of pregnant animals as little is currently known of the disease
epidemiology.
The risk of spread is difficult to quantify until the full epidemiological characteristics of
the disease are known. We consider vector borne transmission to be negligible at
the current time of year, as the UK would be considered vector free.
We will continue to monitor the situation.

4 Authors

Dr Helen Roberts

5 References

European Commission (2011) New orthobunyavirus detected in cattle in Germany.
http://ec.europa.eu/food/committees/regulatory/scfcah/animal_health/presentations/
06122011_new_orthobunyavirus_in_cattle_germany.pdf Accessed 12/12/2011
Friedrich Loeffler Institute (2011) New orthobunyavirus detected in cattle in Germany.
http://www.fli.bund.de/no_cache/en/startseite/press-releases/releases/neuesorthobunyavirus-
bei-rindern.html Accessed 12/12/2011
Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture (2011) Letter on the background and current
developments of Schmallenberg virus in the Netherlands.
http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten-enpublicaties/
kamerstukken/2011/12/16/schmallenbergvirus.html Accessed
20/12/2011
All Commission Legislation is available from the Commission website http://eurlex.
europa.eu/RECH_mot.do

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